Sputnik V (Russian: Спутник V) or Gam-COVID-Vac (Russian: Гам-КОВИД-Вак) is an adenovirus viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Russia. It is the world’s first registered combination vector vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19, having been registered on 11 August 2020 by the Russian Ministry of Health. It has been approved for use in 70 countries with a total population of 4 billion people.
The vaccine’s efficacy is 97.6%, based on the analysis of data on the incidence of coronavirus among Russians vaccinated with both vaccine components between December 5, 2020 and March 31, 2021.
Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials for the vaccine were completed on August 1, 2020. The Phase 3 clinical trial results were published in Russia in the Lancet magazine on February 2, 2021. Phase 3 clinical trials of Sputnik V have also been successful in the UAE, India, Venezuela and Belarus.
The Sputnik V vaccine is based on a proven well-studied human adenovirus vector platform; these vectors cause the common cold and have plagued humanity for millennia.
Sputnik V was the first coronavirus vaccine to use a heterogeneous boosting approach based on 2 different vectors for 2 vaccine shots. This approach generates a more sustainable immunity compared to vaccines that use the same delivery mechanism for both shots.
The safety, efficacy and lack of long-term adverse effects of adenovirus vaccines have been proven in more than 250 clinical trials over two decades.
Sputnik V does not cause severe allergies.
A storage temperature of +2…+8 °C allows the vaccine to be stored in a regular refrigerator without the need to invest in additional cold chain infrastructure.
Sputnik V is effective against new strains of coronavirus, according to a study by the Gamaleya Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology published in the leading international magazine Vaccines.
The vaccine produces protective neutralising antibody titres against new strains, including Alpha B.1.1.7 (first identified in the UK), Beta B.1.351 (first identified in South Africa), Gamma P.1 (first identified in Brazil), Delta B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3 (first identified in India) and variants B.1.1.141 and B.1.1.317 with mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) identified in Moscow.